A rhizomatous perennial herb, mostly found in neutral grasslands on heavy soils, although it also occurs in hedgerows and on wood edges, and in ruderal habitats such as quarry spoil-heaps and railway banks. In upland areas it is also found on rocky streamsides and in tall-herb communities on rock ledges, and on heaths in Ireland. Generally lowland, but reaching 610 m on Helvellyn (Cumberland).
T. medium was mapped as `all records` in the 1962 Atlas. Analysis of the database reveals that the marked decline in S. and E. England has occurred since 1950, the loss of permanent pasture being the main cause.
Eurosiberian Boreo-temperate element; widely naturalised outside its native range.
Light (Ellenberg): 7
Moisture (Ellenberg): 4
Reaction (Ellenberg): 6
Nitrogen (Ellenberg): 4
Salt Tolerance (Ellenberg): 0
January Mean Temperature (Celsius): 3.4
July Mean Temperature (Celsius): 14.8
Annual Precipitation (mm): 1008
PLANTATT - Attributes of British and Irish plants. (.zip 1455KB) This dataset was compiled and published in 2004, and last updated in November 2008. Download includes an Excel spreadsheet of the attributes, and a PDF explaining the background and nomenclature. Note that the PDF version is the booklet as published, whereas the Excel spreadsheet incorporates subsequent corrections. A hardcopy can be purchased from the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology.