Xanthium strumarium

Tracheophyta MagnoliopsidaAsteraceaeXanthiumXanthium strumarium


A tall annual of estuarine shores, rubbish tips, docks and waste ground, originating mainly from grain, wool, oil-seed and soya bean waste. It is usually casual, sometimes persisting for a few years. Lowland.



World Distribution

The native range of X. strumarium is obscure; it is frequent in C. & S. Europe and a widespread weed in warmer climates throughout the world.

Distribution information

JNCC Designations


PLANTATT - Attributes of British and Irish plants. (.zip 1455KB) This dataset was compiled and published in 2004, and last updated in November 2008. Download includes an Excel spreadsheet of the attributes, and a PDF explaining the background and nomenclature. Note that the PDF version is the booklet as published, whereas the Excel spreadsheet incorporates subsequent corrections. A hardcopy can be purchased from the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology.

Atlas text references

Clement (1981b)
Lousley JE
1961.  A census list of wool aliens found in Britain, 1946-1960. Proceedings of the Botanical Society of the British Isles. 4:221-247.
Meusel H, Jäger EJ
1992.  Vergleichende Chorologie der zentraleuropäischen Flora. Volume 3. 2 vols.
Wade AE, Kay QON, Ellis RG, National Museum of Wales
1994.  Flora of Glamorgan.
Weaver SE, Lechowicz MJ
1983.  The biology of Canadian weeds. 56. Xanthium strumarium L. Canadian Journal of Plant Science. 63:211-225.