An annual of open habitats on well-drained, mainly sandy or gravelly soils, including dry grassland, hedge banks, roadsides, sea-walls, waste ground, gravel-pits and arable fields. Lowland.
An erect or spreading perennial, cultivated as a garden herb and found naturalised in open and ruderal habitats, including a rock face in Herefordshire. It also occurs as a casual on waste ground, roadsides and rubbish tips. Lowland.
A robust perennial herb, characteristic of roadsides and hedgerows, but also occurring in abandoned pastures and under-managed hay meadows, in woodland rides and edges, on railway banks, and on waste and cultivated ground. Very wet or dry habitats are avoided. Seedlings are sometimes plentiful but extension of colonies also occurs by offsets from the main stems. 0-760 m (Mt Brandon, S. Kerry) and 845 m on Great Dun Fell (Westmorland).