A tuberous perennial herb of still or slow-moving water, usually occurring on deep, silty, often eutrophic, substrates in shallow ponds and ditches, often where water fluctuates in depth. It also grows in open vegetation by sheltered lakes, reservoirs, canals, streams and rivers, and in marshes and seasonally flooded depressions. Lowland.
A tuberous perennial herb of shallow water in ditches, the banks of streams, rivers, canals, lakes and ponds, roadside culverts, marshes and wet woodland, among boulders at the top of beaches and on dripping or flushed sea-cliffs. Reproduction is usually by seed, and it perhaps spreads when detached tuberous roots are washed downstream. Generally lowland, but reaching 320 m in The Paps (N. Kerry).
A perennial herb of damp or wet habitats, usually in areas of winter flooding. It occurs in meadows and pastures in the flood plains of rivers, in marshes and fens, and in emergent and fringing vegetation by rivers, streams, canals, ditches, lakes and ponds. It reproduces by seed, and spreads by stolons. In heavily grazed swards seed is produced virtually at ground level from secondary growth. Lowland.
An aquatic perennial herb, most frequent in clear, meso-eutrophic water of calcareous streams and rivers; also found in canals and ditches, but rarely in ponds. In flowing water, propagation is usually by plants rooting at nodes, or by vegetative fragmentation. Flowering is more frequent in still or sluggish water, but the frequency of reproduction from seed is unknown. Lowland.
In coastal areas this perennial herb occurs in the uppermost parts of saltmarshes, in rough grassland in drained estuarine marshes, by brackish dykes and the lower reaches of tidal rivers. Inland, it is found in base-enriched habitats, including marshes, fen-meadows and tall-herb fen. Lowland.
A tuberous perennial herb, found in hay meadows and pastures, especially those which are horse-grazed, and on roadsides. It grows in both damp and dry grassland, being the only Oenanthe which grows in dry habitats in our area. Lowland.
This perennial herb is found in damp grassland which receives calcareous flood-water in winter. It normally grows in hay meadows and may occur abundantly in lammas meadows, but only as depauperate individuals in more intensively farmed land. It also occurs on damp streamsides. Lowland.