A perennial creeping herb of woodland, hedgerows, banks, and other moist, usually shaded, habitats; also in rough montane grassland, grikes in limestone pavement, Vaccinium communities, bryophyte-rich block screes, and rock ledges. It grows on both calcareous and non-calcareous soils, though only those which are moisture-retentive. It is one of the few species able to survive the deep shade of conifer plantations. 0-1160 m (Ben Lawers, Mid Perth).
A vigorous rhizomatous perennial herb occasionally naturalised in disturbed areas, on waste ground, roadsides and seashores, but always associated with human habitation. It reproduces mainly by semi-woody rhizome fragments, though some seed-set is reported. Lowland.
A scrambling annual or short-lived perennial herb which is often a pernicious weed of cultivated land, disturbed areas and paths. It is self-compatible and the seeds are explosively ejected up to two metres from the capsules. Its brittle stems readily root at the nodes. Lowland.
A bulbous perennial herb, formerly widely grown as an ornamental and readily becoming naturalised in gardens and on waste ground. It spreads rapidly by easily detached bulblets that are resistant to all but the strongest herbicides, and in places it has become an almost ineradicable weed. Lowland.
A small, prostrate annual or short-lived perennial herb grown in garden rockeries, escaping into habitats such as disturbed ground, pathsides, the base of walls, and crevices in paved areas, in shaded or open situations. Most populations are casual, but in some sites it is known to have persisted for many years. Lowland.
A perennial bulbous herb with annual erect branching stems. It is cultivated in gardens, occasionally escaping to nearby disturbed, shaded sites, hedge banks, stone walls and pavement cracks. It does not set seed, but spreads by bulblets produced in the axils of the aerial stems. Lowland.
A bulbous perennial which was formerly grown as an ornamental. It is a weed of nurseries and gardens, from which it spreads to rubbish tips and other sites where garden refuse is dumped. It does not set seed, but spreads vigorously by easily detached bulblets that are resistant to all but the strongest herbicides. Lowland.
This bulbous perennial herb is naturalised as a weed of agriculture, especially in bulb-fields, in milder areas. It does not set seed, but spreads vigorously by easily detached underground bulblets that are resistant to all but the strongest herbicides. Outside the Channel Islands and Isles of Scilly, populations are usually casual. Lowland.
An erect annual of cultivated ground, disturbed areas and paths, in shaded or semi-shaded situations. It spreads by seed or occasionally by underground rhizomes. Seed is freely set by self-pollination, and forcibly ejected from the capsules over a distance of up to two metres. Lowland.