A robust, deciduous, colony-forming herb of base-rich clay soils in sites with spring-lines, permanent seepages and open flushes, especially in areas where porous rocks are interbedded with clays. It prefers open habitats and is particularly frequent on eroding sea- and river-cliffs, but also grows on roadsides and railway embankments. Lowland to 365 m in Fossdale (N.W. Yorks.).
This species has apparently become more frequent in inland parts of S.E. England in the last 200 years (Kent, 1975). There is, however, little evidence for any appreciable change since the 1962 Atlas.
European Southern-temperate element; also in western N. America (subsp. braunii).
PLANTATT - Attributes of British and Irish plants. (.zip 1455KB) This dataset was compiled and published in 2004, and last updated in November 2008. Download includes an Excel spreadsheet of the attributes, and a PDF explaining the background and nomenclature. Note that the PDF version is the booklet as published, whereas the Excel spreadsheet incorporates subsequent corrections. A hardcopy can be purchased from the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology.
Atlas text references
Atlas of north European vascular plants north of the Tropic of Cancer. 3 vols,
, Königstein, (1986)
Jalas & Suominen (1972)
Ferns and their allies,
, The Island of Mull: a survey of its flora and environment, London, p.12.1-12.7, (1978)
Vergleichende Chorologie der zentraleuropäischen Flora. Volume 1. 2 vols,
, Jena, (1965)
The ferns of Britain and Ireland, edn 2,
, Cambridge, (1997)