An autumn- or spring-germinating annual of dry, open, acidic to neutral and occasionally calcareous habitats including open grassland, quarries and rocky ledges, sand-pits and dunes, sandy heaths and tracks, and arable and other cultivated ground. Lowland.
Populations of F. vulgaris may fluctuate in size in response to climatic conditions and disturbance, but overall there has been a progressive decline, very marked in S. and W. England and Ireland, largely as a result of changing agricultural practices and the cultivation of marginal land.
European Southern-temperate element; also recorded in C. Asia. It reaches its northern limit in Scotland and Jutland.
Light (Ellenberg): 7
Moisture (Ellenberg): 4
Reaction (Ellenberg): 6
Nitrogen (Ellenberg): 4
Salt Tolerance (Ellenberg): 0
January Mean Temperature (Celsius): 3.8
July Mean Temperature (Celsius): 15.5
Annual Precipitation (mm): 832
PLANTATT - Attributes of British and Irish plants. (.zip 1455KB) This dataset was compiled and published in 2004, and last updated in November 2008. Download includes an Excel spreadsheet of the attributes, and a PDF explaining the background and nomenclature. Note that the PDF version is the booklet as published, whereas the Excel spreadsheet incorporates subsequent corrections. A hardcopy can be purchased from the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology.
Atlas text references
Atlas of north European vascular plants north of the Tropic of Cancer. 3 vols,
, Königstein, (1986)
Vergleichende Chorologie der zentraleuropäischen Flora. Volume 3. 2 vols,
, Jena, (1992)