A perennial herb of hedge banks, woodland margins, roadside verges, river banks and other grassy places. Many sites are near houses or old settlements, indicating its origin in cultivation, but it is also often found in places remote from habitation. Generally lowland, but reaching 500 m in E. Allendale (S. Northumb.).
This species was first recorded from the wild in 1777. There has been little appreciable change in its distribution since the 1962 Atlas.
Native of the mountains of C. & S. Europe; widely naturalised elsewhere in temperate Europe.
PLANTATT - Attributes of British and Irish plants. (.zip 1455KB) This dataset was compiled and published in 2004, and last updated in November 2008. Download includes an Excel spreadsheet of the attributes, and a PDF explaining the background and nomenclature. Note that the PDF version is the booklet as published, whereas the Excel spreadsheet incorporates subsequent corrections. A hardcopy can be purchased from the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology.
Atlas text references
Comparative Plant Ecology,
, London, (1988)
Atlas of north European vascular plants north of the Tropic of Cancer. 3 vols,
, Königstein, (1986)
Vergleichende Chorologie der zentraleuropäischen Flora. Volume 2. 2 vols,
, Jena, (1978)
Umbellifers of the British Isles. Botanical Society of the British Isles Handbook no. 2,
, London, (1980)