An evergreen tree, planted in parks, large gardens, churchyards and cemeteries, and becoming well-established in copses, woodland and on sand dunes. It prefers light, warm soils, and is frequently planted near coasts. Seed production can be prolific, and it regenerates freely in parts of S. and E. England. Lowland.
Q. ilex has been cultivated since the 16th century, and was widely planted in the 18th century. It was recorded in the wild in 1862. It can colonise natural habitats aggressively and replace native vegetation. The significant increase in records since the 1962 Atlas is due to better recording and a genuine spread in the south.
Native of the Mediterranean region.
PLANTATT - Attributes of British and Irish plants. (.zip 1455KB) This dataset was compiled and published in 2004, and last updated in November 2008. Download includes an Excel spreadsheet of the attributes, and a PDF explaining the background and nomenclature. Note that the PDF version is the booklet as published, whereas the Excel spreadsheet incorporates subsequent corrections. A hardcopy can be purchased from the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology.
Atlas text references
Jalas & Suominen (1976)
1981. The natural history of Quercus ilex L. in Norfolk. Watsonia. 13:271-286.
EW Jones (1959)
1965. Vergleichende Chorologie der zentraleuropäischen Flora. Volume 1. 2 vols.