Quercus ilex

Tracheophyta MagnoliopsidaFagaceaeQuercusQuercus ilex


An evergreen tree, planted in parks, large gardens, churchyards and cemeteries, and becoming well-established in copses, woodland and on sand dunes. It prefers light, warm soils, and is frequently planted near coasts. Seed production can be prolific, and it regenerates freely in parts of S. and E. England. Lowland.



World Distribution

Native of the Mediterranean region.

© M. Cotterill, IWNHAS

Broad Habitats

Light (Ellenberg): 6

Moisture (Ellenberg): 3

Reaction (Ellenberg): 7

Nitrogen (Ellenberg): 4


Salt Tolerance (Ellenberg): 1

January Mean Temperature (Celsius): 4.1

July Mean Temperature (Celsius): 15.9

Annual Precipitation (mm): 824

Life form information

Height (cm): 2500

Perennation - primary


Life Form - primary

Mega-, meso- and microphanerophyte



Clonality - primary

Little or no vegetative spread

Distribution information

Count of 10km squares in Great Britain: 802

Count of 10km squares in Ireland: 22

Count of 10km squares in the Channel Isles: 14

Atlas Change Index: 2.37

Weighted Changed Factor: 38

Weighted Change Factor Confidence (90%)


Distribution information

JNCC Designations


PLANTATT - Attributes of British and Irish plants. (.zip 1455KB) This dataset was compiled and published in 2004, and last updated in November 2008. Download includes an Excel spreadsheet of the attributes, and a PDF explaining the background and nomenclature. Note that the PDF version is the booklet as published, whereas the Excel spreadsheet incorporates subsequent corrections. A hardcopy can be purchased from the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology.

Atlas text references

Atlas (186b)
Jalas & Suominen (1976)
James R, Mitchell SC, Kett J, Leaton R
1981.  The natural history of Quercus ilex L. in Norfolk. Watsonia. 13:271-286.
EW Jones (1959)
Meusel H, Jäger E, Weinert E
1965.  Vergleichende Chorologie der zentraleuropäischen Flora. Volume 1. 2 vols.