A small annual or short-lived perennial, found at the edge of small water bodies and by the sheltered backwaters of rivers. It often grows on the cattle-poached edges of ponds, ditches and streams, in wet gateways and on paths and tracks. It tolerates a broad range of pH and nutrient levels, including nitrophilous conditions. 0-770 m (Little Dun Fell, Westmorland).
This species was lost from some sites in S.E. England before 1900 as a result of agricultural improvement and urban spread. It has declined since 1950 in areas where the agriculture is now mostly arable, but remains frequent elsewhere.
Suboceanic Southern-temperate element.
Height (cm): 9
Perennation - primary
Perennation - secondary
Life Form - primary
Life Form - secondary
Comment on Life Form
Clonality - primary
Clonality - secondary
PLANTATT - Attributes of British and Irish plants. (.zip 1455KB) This dataset was compiled and published in 2004, and last updated in November 2008. Download includes an Excel spreadsheet of the attributes, and a PDF explaining the background and nomenclature. Note that the PDF version is the booklet as published, whereas the Excel spreadsheet incorporates subsequent corrections. A hardcopy can be purchased from the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology.
Atlas text references
1986. Atlas of north European vascular plants north of the Tropic of Cancer. 3 vols.
Jalas & Suominen (1989)
1965. Vergleichende Chorologie der zentraleuropäischen Flora. Volume 1. 2 vols.
1997. Aquatic plants in Britain and Ireland.