An erect annual found naturalised as a weed of cultivated ground in S.W. England, particularly in bulb-fields and gardens in the Isles of Scilly, and as a bird-seed, grain and wool alien elsewhere. Lowland.
This species, in cultivation in Britain by 1683, was known in the wild by 1859 (Surrey). It has decreased as a casual, presumably through improved seed cleaning techniques.
Native of S.W. Europe and the Mediterranean region.
Light (Ellenberg): 7
Moisture (Ellenberg): 4
Reaction (Ellenberg): 5
Nitrogen (Ellenberg): 5
Salt Tolerance (Ellenberg): 0
January Mean Temperature (Celsius): 5
July Mean Temperature (Celsius): 15.6
Annual Precipitation (mm): 864
Count of 10km squares in Great Britain: 18
Count of 10km squares in Ireland: 1
Count of 10km squares in the Channel Isles: 0
PLANTATT - Attributes of British and Irish plants. (.zip 1455KB) This dataset was compiled and published in 2004, and last updated in November 2008. Download includes an Excel spreadsheet of the attributes, and a PDF explaining the background and nomenclature. Note that the PDF version is the booklet as published, whereas the Excel spreadsheet incorporates subsequent corrections. A hardcopy can be purchased from the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology.
Atlas text references
Jalas & Suominen (1989)