A biennial, sometimes perennial, herb found in woodland clearings, plantations, hedge banks and rough waste ground, usually in shade. Lowland.
This species was first recorded in the wild in 1633. By the 18th century it was known from several localities in, for example, Surrey, Sussex and N. Wales, and it had become naturalised throughout Britain by 1930. The number of records has increased since the 1962 Atlas, particularly in S.E. Scotland.
Native of the mountains of C. & S. Europe and the Caucasus.
Count of 10km squares in Great Britain: 192
Count of 10km squares in Ireland: 0
Count of 10km squares in the Channel Isles: 0
Atlas Change Index: 0.54
PLANTATT - Attributes of British and Irish plants. (.zip 1455KB) This dataset was compiled and published in 2004, and last updated in November 2008. Download includes an Excel spreadsheet of the attributes, and a PDF explaining the background and nomenclature. Note that the PDF version is the booklet as published, whereas the Excel spreadsheet incorporates subsequent corrections. A hardcopy can be purchased from the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology.