A shortly rhizomatous perennial herb which occurs naturalised on roadsides and railway banks and also as a casual on tips. Lowland.
This species was introduced into cultivation in Britain in 1629 and is occasionally grown in gardens. It was recorded from the wild by 1905 and has been known since 1949 on a railway bank in Royal Tunbridge Wells (W. Kent). It is apparently becoming more frequent.
Native of Eurasia, with a disjunct distribution (C. & W. Europe, E. Asia).
PLANTATT - Attributes of British and Irish plants. (.zip 1455KB) This dataset was compiled and published in 2004, and last updated in November 2008. Download includes an Excel spreadsheet of the attributes, and a PDF explaining the background and nomenclature. Note that the PDF version is the booklet as published, whereas the Excel spreadsheet incorporates subsequent corrections. A hardcopy can be purchased from the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology.
Atlas text references
Atlas of north European vascular plants north of the Tropic of Cancer. 3 vols,
, Königstein, (1986)
Jalas & Suominen (1989)
Vergleichende Chorologie der zentraleuropäischen Flora. Volume 1. 2 vols,
, Jena, (1965)