|Title||Current and potential management strategies against Harmonia axyridis|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2008|
|Authors||Kenis, M, Roy, HE, Zindel, R, Majerus, MEN|
|ISBN Number||1386-6141, 1573-8248|
|Keywords||Agriculture, Animal Biochemistry, Animal Ecology, Behavioural Sciences, Biological control, Chemical control, Cultivation practices, Entomology, Entomopathogenic fungi, Harmonia axyridis, Integrated pest management, Mechanical control, Parasitic mites, Parasitoids, Plant Pathology|
This paper reviews the current and potential methods to control the harlequin ladybird, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), an Asian predatory beetle invasive in Europe and the Americas where it has become a human nuisance, a grape and wine pest and a threat to native biodiversity. Current methods to manage this invasive species include: techniques to mechanically prevent adult beetles from entering buildings in autumn or to remove aggregates of beetles inside buildings, e.g. using various trapping methods; the use of insecticides on buildings or in vineyards to prevent aggregation in houses or on grapes; cultivation practices in vineyards to lower the impact of the ladybird on grape production and wine quality; remedial treatments for wine tainted by the ladybird. Other methods are presently being developed or considered. Semiochemicals could be used as deterrents or as attractants to develop more efficient trapping systems in buildings and open fields. Natural enemies include pathogens, parasitoids, predators and a parasitic mite but few of them show potential as biological control agents. While management methods presently used or under development may eventually solve the problems caused by beetles aggregating in buildings or vineyards, the issue of H. axyridis populations outcompeting native species is much more challenging. Only the sudden adaptation of a native natural enemy or the importation of a natural enemy from the area of origin of the ladybird may ultimately lower population densities. The problems linked to the importation of an Asian natural enemy of H. axyridis are discussed.