A roadmap for ladybird conservation and recovery
Abstract Ladybirds (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) are an important beneficial group that, as other insects, are negatively affected by many human-mediated threats, including climate change, agricultural intensification, habitat loss, pollution, and biological invasions. Ecological impacts from these threats have altered the richness, abundance, and distribution of insect species, impacting their survival and compromising the numerous services they provide. The development and implementation of conservation strategies for ladybirds is hindered by a lack of knowledge of the conservation status of most species and the factors driving their population dynamics. Here we review the ecological threats faced by ladybirds, and current projects and actions that should aid the conservation and recovery of their populations. We also identify knowledge gaps in biodiversity assessment and conservation approaches, and suggest mitigating actions following Harvey et al. (2020) as a roadmap for ladybird conservation and recovery over short-, intermediate-, and long-term timescales. Article impact statement: In light of major ecological threats, mitigating actions at different timescales are crucial for ladybird conservation and recovery.
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