Citizen Science

Current Activity


Citizen science can broadly be defined as the involvement of volunteers in science.  BRC and the volunteer schemes have worked together to gather and analyse wildlife observations for 50 years providing evidence to underpin science, policy and practical conservation. During 2007, volunteer observers for biodiversity surveillance in the UK were estimated to contribute time in-kind worth more than £20 million. Combined with experience from other CEH-led citizen science environmental monitoring, CEH is becoming established as a leader in citizen science.



Key Outputs


A UK-Environmental Observation Framework project critically reviewed citizen science practice and highlighted lessons learnt, the requirements of data users, and also reviewed the potential benefits of new technologies. CEH acknowledged the importance of sharing good practice and produced a guide on the practical implementation of the review. More recently the “Choosing and Using Citizen Science” guide has been developed by CEH in collaboration with SEPA.

Conker tree science

Photo of scientist and children

Photo: Susie Pocock.

The Conker Tree Science project engaged over 8,000 people. People were invited to report the occurrence of the horse chestnut leafminer (Cameraria ohridella). The project enhanced understanding of the invasion dynamics of this moth, the associated parasitoids and the value of citizen science.

Guides to citizen science

Picture of the guides to citizen science

Picture: CEH.

‘Choosing and using citizen science’ and ‘Guide to citizen science’ are two documents produced from projects reviewing the breadth and utility of citizen science for environmental research and monitoring. Both recognize the value of citizen science as an approach for undertaking environmental studies and provide a critical framework for developing such initiatives.


Smartphone apps

Photo of mobile phone running ladybird app

Photo: Heather Lowther, CEH.

The development of a smartphone apps for recording ladybirds has enabled the UK Ladybird Survey to attract new recorders. More than 9,000 records have been submitted in its first year. The newly released iRecord Butterflies app received more than 4,000 records within a month of being available. Verification and validation methods within iRecord provide quality assurance and onwards flow of data.


Future Challenges


Data quality is often a major challenge for citizen science approaches.  To ensure the usefulness of data collected by volunteers, a variety of quality assurance methods are used. Automated checks, developed by schemes and societies, when coupled with expert verification play a critical role in ensuring the accuracy of biological records. iRecord provides an example of this approach.  Development of novel methods will undoubtedly encourage further interest in citizen science and help to recruit and train new generations of recorders.





Bell Fiona, Botham Marc, Brereton Tom M., Fenton Andy, Hodgson Jenny (2021) Grizzled Skippers stuck in the south: Population-level responses of an early-successional specialist butterfly to climate across its UK range over 40 years. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd,
Dambly Lea I., Jones Kate E., Boughey Katherine L., Isaac Nick J. B. (2021) Observer retention, site selection and population dynamics interact to bias abundance trends in bats. ,
Groom Quentin, Pernat Nadja, Adriaens Tim, de Groot Maarten, Jelaska Sven D., Marčiulynienė Diana, Martinou Angeliki F., Skuhrovec Jiří, Tricarico Elena, Wit Ernst C., Roy Helen E. (2021) Species interactions: next-level citizen science. ,
Jönsson Galina M., Broad Gavin R., Sumner Seirian, Isaac Nick J. B. (2021) A century of social wasp occupancy trends from natural history collections: spatiotemporal resolutions have little effect on model performance. ,
Skuhrovec Jiří, Roy Helen E., Brown Peter M. J., Kazlauskis Karolis, Inghilesi Alberto F., Soares Antonio O., Adriaens Tim, Roy David B., Nedved Oldřich, Zach Peter, Viglášová Sandra, Kulfan Jan, Honek Alois, Martinkova Zdenka (2021) Development of the European Ladybirds Smartphone Application: A Tool for Citizen Science. ,
Boyd Rob, Isaac Nick, Cooke Rob, Mancini Francesca, August Tom, Powney Gary, Logie Mark, Roy D.B. (2021) Practical Considerations for Implementing Species Distribution Essential Biodiversity Variables. ,
Terry Christopher D., Roy Helen E., August Tom A. (2020) Thinking like a naturalist: Enhancing computer vision of citizen science images by harnessing contextual data. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd,
Sevilleja C.G., Collins S., Warren M.S., Wynhoff I., Van Swaay C.A.M., Dennis E.B., Schmucki R., Azcon J.M. Barea, Bonelli S., Bourn N., Cassar L.F., Crespo J.I. de Arce, Dziekanska I., Fric Faltynek, Kolev Z., Krenn H., Lehner D., Monteiro E., Munguira M.L., Ozden O., Pavlicko A., Pendl M., Rudisser J., Sasic M., Sielezniew M., Settele J., Szabadfalvi A., Teixeira S.M., Tzirkalli E., Roy D.B. (2020) European Butterfly Monitoring Scheme (eBMS): network development. Technical report. Butterfly Conservation Europe, Wageningen, The Netherlands
Van Swaay C.A.M., Dennis E.B., Schmucki R., Sevilleja C.G., Aghababyan K., Astrom S., Balalaikins M., Bonelli S., Botham M., Bourn N., Brereton T., Cancela J.P., Carlisle B., Collins S., Dopagne C., Dziekanska I., Escobes R., Fric Faltynek, Feldman R., Fernandez-Garcia J.M., Fontaine B., Goloshchapova S., Gracianteparaluceta A., Harpke A., Harrower C., Heliola J., Khanamirian G., Kolev Z., Komac B., Krenn H., Kuhn E., Lang A., Leopold P., Lysaght L., Maes D., McGowan D., Mestdagh X., Middlebrook I., Monasterio Y., Monteiro E., Munguira M.L., Musche M., Ounap E., Ozden O., Paramo F., Pavlicko A., Petterson L.B., Piqueray J., Prokofev I., Rakosy L., Roth T., Rudisser J., Sasic M., Settele J., Sielezniew M., Stefanescu C., Svitra G., Szabadfalvi A., Teixeira S.M., Tiitsaar A., Tzirkalli E., Verovnik R., Warren M.S., Wynhoff I., Roy D.B. (2020) Butterfly indicators 1990-2018. Technical report. Butterfly Conservation Europe, Wageningen, The Netherlands
August Tom, Fox Richard, Roy David B., Pocock Michael J. O. (2020) Data-derived metrics describing the behaviour of field-based citizen scientists provide insights for project design and modelling bias. ,